Universal Sentence Encoder Multilingual

Description

The Universal Sentence Encoder encodes text into high-dimensional vectors that can be used for text classification, semantic similarity, clustering, and other natural language tasks.

The model is trained and optimized for greater-than-word length text, such as sentences, phrases, or short paragraphs. It is trained on a variety of data sources and a variety of tasks with the aim of dynamically accommodating a wide variety of natural language understanding tasks. The input is the variable-length text and the output is a 512-dimensional vector. The universal-sentence-encoder model has trained with a deep averaging network (DAN) encoder.

This model supports 16 languages (Arabic, Chinese-simplified, Chinese-traditional, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Thai, Turkish, Russian) text encoder.

The details are described in the paper “Multilingual Universal Sentence Encoder for Semantic Retrieval”.

Note: This model only works on Linux and macOS operating systems and is not compatible with Windows due to the incompatibility of the SentencePiece library.

Download

How to use

...
embeddings = UniversalSentenceEncoder.pretrained("tfhub_use_multi", "xx") \
      .setInputCols("document") \
      .setOutputCol("sentence_embeddings")
nlp_pipeline = Pipeline(stages=[document_assembler, sentence_detector, embeddings])
pipeline_model = nlp_pipeline.fit(spark.createDataFrame([[""]]).toDF("text"))
result = pipeline_model.transform(spark.createDataFrame(pd.DataFrame({"text": ["I love NLP", "Me encanta usar SparkNLP"]})))
...
val embeddings = UniversalSentenceEncoder.pretrained("tfhub_use_multi", "xx")
      .setInputCols("document")
      .setOutputCol("sentence_embeddings")
val pipeline = new Pipeline().setStages(Array(document_assembler, sentence_detector, embeddings))
val result = pipeline.fit(Seq.empty["I love NLP", "Me encanta usar SparkNLP"].toDS.toDF("text")).transform(data)
import nlu

text = ["I love NLP", "Me encanta usar SparkNLP"]
embeddings_df = nlu.load('xx.use.multi').predict(text, output_level='sentence')
embeddings_df

Results

It gives a 512-dimensional vector of the sentences.

        xx_use_multi_embeddings	                                sentence

0	[-0.07108945399522781, 0.034001532942056656, 0...	I love NLP
1	[-0.029642866924405098, -0.027465445920825005,...	Me encanta usar SparkNLP

Model Information

Model Name: tfhub_use_multi
Compatibility: Spark NLP 2.7.0+
License: Open Source
Edition: Official
Input Labels: [sentence]
Output Labels: [sentence_embeddings]
Language: xx

Data Source

This embeddings model is imported from https://tfhub.dev/google/universal-sentence-encoder-multilingual/3

Benchmarking

  • We apply this model to the STS benchmark for semantic similarity. The eval can be seen in the example notebook made available. Results are shown below:
STSBenchmark                       | dev    | test  |
-----------------------------------|--------|-------|   
Correlation coefficient of Pearson | 0.829  | 0.809 |
Dataset                | Quora | AskUbuntu | Average |
-----------------------|-------|-----------|---------|
Mean Averge Precision  | 89.2  | 39.9      | 64.6    |
  • For the translation pair retrieval, we evaluate the model on the United Nation Parallal Corpus. Results are shown below:
Language Pair  | en-es  | en-fr | en-ru | en-zh |
---------------|--------|-------|-------|-------|
Precision@1    | 85.8   | 82.7  | 87.4  | 79.5  |